1723年(清雍正元年),雍正天子御批宝川堂 供御药,由此开启了供御药的传奇履历。在全部清代期间,享有持续188年供御药殊荣的官方药铺只要宝川堂 一家。“传取宝川堂 药品,标明清宫对宝川堂 的信赖和喜爱,同时也证实宝川堂 成药的品德良好,可以或许和御药房所制成药互为替换”。
In 1723,the 1st Qing Yongzheng reign, the emperor granted Tongrentang’s imperial supply of medications, when a legendary development process was initiated and lasted a successive duration of 188 years, then proudly as the only fold pharmacy supplier. The emperor’s grant to imperial supply of Tongrentang medications indicates the trust of Qing Imperial Palace and favor in Tongrentang. Meanwhile, this also proves the superb quality of Tongrentang prepared medicines, which were then replaceable with those by the imperial pharmacies.”


药材和咀片(饮片):这是宝川堂 在所供的御药中传药次数最多、种类最广、数目最大的种别。以同治到宣统年间为例,仅49个年份中,有据可查的清宫传宝川堂 药材和咀片次数共163次。此中:传药材124次,占76%;传咀片39次,占24%。
Medicinal Materials and prepared drug in pieces, were in most frequent demand, widest ranges, and largest quantities among all the Tongrentang supplies to the imperial court. Taking the supplies during the Tongzhi through Xuantong reigns as an example, there was a proven record of the Qing imperial court’s 163-time, which was only in a period of 49 years.

中成药(含申明书):今朝故宫馆藏的宝川堂 供中成药的申明书(药品申明书)稀有千张,种类有上百种,首要有牛黄清心丸、熊油虎骨膏、加味清闲丸、三黄宝蜡丸、内补养荣丸、佛手开骨散、养血安胎丸、七制香附丸、调经丸、百补济阴丸、令媛止带丸、小儿香橘丸、女金丹等。“有一种申明书就象征着与之对应的一种药在宫中呈现过”。今朝仍保管在故宫博物院文物库房的宝川堂 中成药有八宝太乙紫金锭、黎峒丸、十香返魂丹、神效灵敏丸(现名为“同仁大灵敏丸”)、再造丸、苏合丸等。”
Traditional Chinese Medicines: Several thousands of package inserts and hundreds of Traditional Chinese Medicines are collected at the Palace Museum, such as Niuhuang Qingxin Pill (cow-bezoar sedative bolus), Jiawei Xiaoyao Pill (flavored rambling pill), Yangxue Antai Pill (pill for nourishing the fetus), Tiaojing Pill (pill for menstrual regulation), Qianjin Zhidai Pill (pill for arresting leucorrhea), Xiaoer Xiangju Pill (aiding digestion pill for kids), Nv Jin Pill (pill for warming the uterus) and many others. The package inserts imply that some corresponding herbal medicine was ever consumed in the Imperial Palace. A number of Tongrentang Chinese Medicines are still housed at the Palace Museum cultural relic hall, including Babao Taiyi Zijinding, Lidong Pill, Shixiang Fanhun Pill, Shenxiao Huoluo Pill(presently renamed Tongren Da Huoluo Pill), Zaizao Pill and Suhe Pill,and so on.

《宝川堂 传统配本》被两次传抄进入宫中,用于御药房配制中成药:光绪十一年(1885年)六月初四日,《宝川堂 传统配本》一册抄存于清宫御医院(现存于故宫博物院),全书共103个配方,首列碧云散、开头是益寿比天膏;光绪十七年(1898年)八月初八日,清宫又命宝川堂 抄写《宝川堂 传统配本》、《宝川堂 药目》给御药房(现存于故宫博物院),此中有中成药配方425种,分为16门类,首列风痰门,牛黄清心丸列首位。
The manuscript of TRT Traditional Medicine Matching was re-copied into the Qing Imperial Palace for imperial pharmacy preparation of Traditional Chinese Medicine in the 4th day of the 6th lunar month, 1885 (the 11th Guangxu reign), then housed at the Palace Imperial Hospital and presently at the Palace Museum. The book includes a total of 103 formulas. In the 8th day of the 8th lunar month ,1891 (the 17th Guangxu reign), the Qing Imperial Palace ordered Tongrentang to copy the updated TRT Traditional Medicine Matching and TRT Materia Medica (now housed at the Palace Museum) for the imperial pharmacy preparations, which comprise 425 formulas of Tongrentang Traditional Chinese Medicines. The first category is anemogenous phlegm, while the first recommended Chinese Medicine is Niuhuang Qinxin Pill in that category.

尔后,清宫御药房屡次利用宝川堂 配方建造成药,如御药房档案《上用丸散膏丹配方薄》记实:“光绪十三年玄月十二日,连英传:用宝川堂 配方合梅苏丸;光绪十七年三月二十二日,按宝川堂 配方合清肺抑火化痰丸四分之一料,如绿豆粒大;光绪二十二年六月初七日,用宝川堂 配方合令媛保胎膏一料;光绪二十六年仲春十一日,福祥传:用宝川堂 配方合加味保和丸半料;光绪二十六年仲春十一日,福祥传:用宝川堂 配方合香砂养胃半料”。
After that, the Qing imperial pharmacy applied Tongrentang formulas to prepare their medicines for several times.


Keeping healthy for preventive treatment of diseases

Keeping healthy constantly for preventive treatment of diseases

《黄帝内经》曰:“阴阳四时者,万物之终始也,死生之本也,逆之则灾难生,从之则苛疾不起,是谓得道”。四时摄生、防病于已然,不治已病治未病是西医摄生、医疗的根基理念,宝川堂 供的御药中50%以上用于治未病。在皇宫中,天子、后、妃等脾胃病较多,加上易有肝郁气滞,大都停饮较重,湿邪缠身,以是终年利用灯炷草、三仙饮(炒山查、炒麦芽、炒神曲)等消食、祛湿、清心、安神的中药调度。
Keeping healthy and preventing disease are quite worthwhile all year round. This is the fundamental philosophy of Traditional Chinese Medical Treatment. Half of the Tongrentang supplied medicines for the imperial pharmacy preparation was mainly aimed at such preventions.  

Recuperating at all seasons for Preventative treatment of diseases

The seasonal medication applies to the tropism of taste of Traditional Chinese Medicine for recuperation of the human body to prevent disease by using mild and effective Medicinal Materials and following the Five Elements theory. Such theories and practices of keeping healthy with Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Qing Imperial Palace still remain valuable of vast application in the modern society.

春季,天气渐暖,风多枯燥,寒热瓜代,摄生去病重在舒肝养血,养阴润燥,健脾开胃利湿。宝川堂 供鲜芦根、白菊花、竹茹等宣润肺燥,养阴益肝;用灯炷草、三仙饮(炒山查、炒麦芽、炒神曲)消食、导滞、养脾胃。
In spring, Tongrentang supplies fresh Rhizoma Phragmitis, white chrysanthemums and Caulis Bambusae In Taenia for nourishing the lung, nourishing Yin(feminine and negative) and strengthening liver. Common rushes and Sanxianyin are helpful for digestion and removing food stagnation, and strengthening the spleen and stomach.

夏日,六合暖和潮湿,万物处于开散、茂盛的期间,须要防治温热过分,伤损阴液。宝川堂 供暑汤、香薷汤、金衣祛暑丸、六合定中丸、灯炷草、薄荷、竹茹等祛暑解热、生津止渴。
In summer, Tongrentang supplies Herba Elsholtziae Decoction, Caulis Bambusae In Taenia and other products for clearing such heat, helping produce saliva and quench thirst.

春季,六合天气转向严寒、枯燥,万物处于收敛阶段,南京 地域金风抽丰、风沙起头变多,人轻易多愁善感,须要重视润肺防燥,止咳化痰。宝川堂 供灯炷草、薄荷、白菊花等润肺去燥。
In autumn, Tongrentang provides common rushes, mint and white chrysanthemums for nourishing your lung and expelling pathogenic heat.

夏季,天寒地冻,万物纷纭进入阳气躲藏于内的状况,须要重视掩护身材阳气,勿使外越,防止外界严寒侵袭而毁伤。宝川堂 供鲜芦根、白豆蔻、砂仁、三仙饮(炒山查、炒麦芽、炒神曲)等引肺气降落,开胃暖胃。
In winter, Tongrentang supplies fresh Rhizoma Phragmitis, cardamom, fructus amomi and San xian Yin and medicated leaven to down regulate lung Qi(Vital energy) for appetizing and warming the stomach.

Indication-based Preventive Medication for Treating Disease Before Its Onset

In 1778--1801, the 41st through 64th Qing Qianlong reign, the Qing emperor Qianlong, in the twilight of his life, suffered from post-natural weakness, in addition to deficiencies of Yin(feminine and negative), Yang(masculine and positive), Qi(Vital energy) and Blood, therefore frequently took eight-therapy cakes and Shengmaiyin, of which, during 1799--1801, 359 were Tongrentang consumed by him.

Around-the-clock Medical Service For Curing of the Diseases

清宫成员产生疾病,出格是天子、太后等抱病,宝川堂 要“全天候”办事。
Upon their sickness, the Qing imperial palace officials and their family, especially the emperor and the empress dowager, demanded Tongrentang’s provision of around-the-clock medical services.

再造丸收载于1764年《宝川堂 传统配本》的“风痰门”。经考据,光绪十一年(1885年),御医李德昌为慈禧太后拟再造丸,是按照《宝川堂 传统配本》连系慈禧太后自己体质加1味白芍而成。 宝川堂 再造丸申明书现存于故宫,申明书内容:“此药专治风湿诸痹、口眼倾斜、半身不遂、行步艰巨、筋骨拘挛、伯仲痛苦悲伤。宣畅气血,通利经络。大者一丸、小者酌用。病在左部,用四物汤为引,当归、生地、白芍、川芎各一钱;病在右部,用四正人汤为引,白术一钱、茯苓一钱、人参一钱、甘草五分,如无人参用黄芪代;其他用姜汤、黄酒酌用;妊妇忌服;五种痫症,用金器煎汤送下。宝川堂 乐家老铺开设在南京 正阳门外大栅栏中心路南,有冲天招牌便是”。
The Zaizao Pill is compiled into the Anemogenous Phlegm category of TRT Traditional Medicine Matching Tongrentang in the 11rd Guangxu reign (1885), through investigations, it is evidenced that, the imperial physician Li Dechang proposed the Zaizao Pill to Empress Dowager Cixi with reference to TRT Traditional Medicine Matching, and just added one more herbal medicine -Radix Paeoniae Alba based on Cixi’s actual physical conditions. The Tongrentang imitated Zaizao Pill recipe from Tongrentang is now enshrined at the Palace Museum,

Ensuring the emperor’s health during his travels

宝川堂 供的御药常常为皇上及皇室成员的出行保驾护航。
During the travel of the emperor and other imperial family members, Tongrentang medicines specially formulated for use by the ancient China's emperor were often brought with them.

乾隆四十八年(1783年)乾隆帝“木兰秋狝”(秋猎),备“随围药味咀片丸散”的差事由宝川堂 承当,并“限八月三十一日送到”。这次所办药材有茯苓、苏叶、陈皮、半夏等27种;六味地黄丸、健步虎潜丸、补中益气丸、藿香邪气丸、宣化丸、参苏理肺丸、五福化毒丹等成药34种;牛黄、冰片、麝香、朱砂、雄黄、犀角面、白芨面等名贵细料药物及药面7种。
During Qianlong’s ‘Mulan Qiuxian’ (autumn hunting) in his 48th reign(1783), the preparation of herbal medicines, slices, patent medicines used in the hunting was undertaken by Tongrentang, which was ordered ‘to be due on 31st day of the 8th lunar month’. There were 27 kinds of medicinal materials, 34 patent medicines  And 7 kinds of precious and fine materials and powders.

Rewarding the Minister to show emperor's kindness

The emperor not only paid attention to his own health, but also cared for the ministers or regional premiers who had made contributions, courtiers and preferred ministers, imperial relatives, and the frontline officers and soldiers.

Pingan Pill is a prescription for treating pains in the heart and stomach. This prescription is suitable for those who feel fullness in chest, vomit, have sour regurgitation, and feel anorexia, distention and stagnation. It can regulate the liver and spleen, and coordinate the up and down movement without damaging the promordial Qi(Vital energy). Therefore, it was used not only by imperial families, but also by ministers as rewards given by Emperor Yongzheng.

Ensuring that examinations would gather talents

清代每一年年龄二次(同治五年之前每一年四次)举行御医院科会测验,由堂官主考,凡吏目、医士、恩粮生、肄业生、大夫,按测验成果决议是不是能在御医院办事。此时宝川堂 承当“科会试场差”,参考职员身材不适所用中药由宝川堂 供给。
In the Qing Dynasty, imperial medical examinations were held two times, separately in spring and autumn , by the Imperial Hospital. The examinations were monitored by Court officials and the examination results of the participants, including minor officials, medical assistants, food doctors, interns, physicians, were used to determine whether they could work in the Imperial Hospital or not. At this time, Tongrentang was responsible for the "examination room errands", and supplied Chinese medicines to these who had discomfort during the test.

在清代每三年的科举会试中,宝川堂 按照举人的身材环境收费备药,写上举人的名字送到驻地。
In imperial medical examinations that took place every 3 years in Qing Dynasty, Tongrentang prepared medicines according to the physical conditions of the successful candidates of the examinations with their name on the prescriptions and then delivered these prescriptions to where they lived.

上述宝川堂 供给的药品保证办事,既为皇家博得了士子之心,也使宝川堂 的产物名扬四海。
These drug-supporting services provided by Tongrentang had not only won the hearts of the scholars for the imperial family, but also made the products of Tongrentang well-known in the world.

Prevention and Control of the Epidemic to Stabilize the Public Confidence

Dr. Zhang Zhongyuan, a court physician of the Qing Dynasty, said in the Annals of Imperial Academy of Medicine: “At the order of the emperor, medical stations would be established and medical staff be dispatched to distribute medicines in the capital city whenever there was an epidemic outburst...the imperial decree stated: ever since the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, whenever an epidemic erupted in the capital city, the infantry commander would petition for an imperial decree to distribute medicines to soldiers and civilians from both Manchu and Han community. Once the Emperor issued an imperial decree, the Imperial Academy of Medicine would make a “list of medicines” and start the distribution was mandatory to follow the imperial decree.”

Main Delivery Forms of Imperial Medicines 

List-based Delivery

清宫御药房将各宫内药房等地方传用的成药或咀片写出“用药清单”,交给逐日来御药房的宝川堂 药商,药商将“用药清单”速交宝川堂 铺东,宝川堂 据此一一备药,再由药商将药送交御药房。
The Imperial Pharmacy of Qing Imperial Palace would make a "list of medicines" for patent medicines needed by the internal Pharmacies in every palace, and give it to the shopkeeper of Tongrentang immediately, who would prepare the medicines one by one according to the list.

Prompt Delivery

碰到天子对用药有特别品质请求的环境,御药房须派官员去宝川堂 挑选药材,“赶快交进”。
In the case that the Emperor had special requirements for the quality of medicines, the Imperial Pharmacy would send officials to Tongrentang to select the Medicinal Materials and "deliver them promptly".

On-site Medicine Preparation in the Palace

御药房传宝川堂 手艺职员进宫制药。光绪二十五年正月十四日乾清宫逼真效暖脐药二料,档案记实在御药房制药,用“宝川堂 熬膏匠役四名”。宝川堂 的“工匠”可以或许进宫制药,表现出皇家对宝川堂 制药工艺程度的信赖。
Pharmacists of Tongrentang were called upon by the Imperial Pharmacy to prepare medicines in the palace.

Monitoring of Medicine Preparation

御药房派官员到宝川堂 监督制药,所用药料从宝川堂 取货。光绪三十一年正月初三日,御药房“合配三色暑药共一百四十料,官员、苏拉等赴宝川堂 监督碾、筛和合配让步”。
Some officials dispatched by the Imperial Pharmacy monitored the process of medicine preparation in Tongrentang, with all the Medicinal Materials being selected there in Tongrentang.

Emergency Delivery of Medicines

这类情势是由于宫内有特别病人,首要是天子、太后等突发疾病,由乾清宫内药房、寿药房等首级传旨御药房,所用药物在宝川堂 筹办停当,随时交进。即便在夜间,御药房也要派专差当即到宝川堂 取药。
This happened when some patients in the palace needed special treatment, mostly when the Emperor and the Empress Dowager suddenly fell ill. In this case, the Imperial Pharmacy would receive imperial decree through the supervisors of the Internal Pharmacy and the Longevity Pharmacy of Palace of Heavenly Purity, then all medicines needed would be well-prepared in Tongrentang for prompt delivery. Even at night, the Imperial Pharmacy must send special dispatchers to Tongrentang to collect the medicines.

Basic Procedures for the Delivery of Imperial Medicines

清御药房档案记实,宝川堂 向清宫供药大抵须要按以下法式操持:
Tongrentang’s process of offering medicines to the Qing Imperial Palace were as follows:

The supervisor and eunuch of the Internal Pharmacy would convey the imperial decree to the Imperial Pharmacy for the delivery of medicines.

御药房“票传”宝川堂 ,由宝川堂 药商逐日到御药房领“用药清单传票”,送交宝川堂 药铺。
Summoned by the Imperial Pharmacy, the drug dealer of Tongrentang would come and collect the “list of medicines” on a daily basis, and then deliver the list to Tongrentang.

宝川堂 当即按“用药清单”备药,由宝川堂 药商送交御药房。
Tongrentang would prepare the medicines immediately according to the “list of medicines” and deliver them to the Imperial Pharmacy through the drug dealer.

The medicines should be checked for the quality and weighed according to the “list of medicines” by the officials of the Imperial Pharmacy for acceptance.

The Imperial Pharmacy would deliver the medicines to the Internal Pharmacy, and the preparation process would start after the emperor gave his permission, namely “the Internal Pharmacy would present the medicines to the emperor for determining whether the preparation process should start”.

The Imperial Pharmacy (or the Internal Pharmacy) would prepare the pills, powder or decoction.

Once the preparation completed, some of the records would be present to the Empress Dowager and the Emperor for review.

The Imperial Pharmacy would calculate the final price of imperial medicines and make a “price list of medicines”.

The list would be signed by a total of 17 competent officials from the Imperial Household Department and the Imperial Pharmacy.

The Imperial Pharmacy would compile a memorial of the above mentioned process with the title of “Medicinal Expenses Sorted Out by the Imperial Pharmacy”, and submit it to the Emperor for review.

The Imperial Pharmacy then would make the memorial--“Medicine Expenses Sorted Out by the Imperial Pharmacy” into an official document and transfer it to the Treasury Bureau via the Department of Storage.

The Imperial Pharmacy would issue “a certificate bearing an official seal” and collect fees of the medicines from the Treasury Bureau.

The Imperial Pharmacy would issue an official document titled “Settlement Submitted by the Imperial Pharmacy” to Jingyun Gate.

Then, the Imperial Pharmacy would an official document titled “Notification from the Imperial Pharmacy” to the Discipline Inspection Department.

宝川堂 药商将药银领回宝川堂 。
Later, the drug dealer of Tongrentang would collect the total sum of medicine fees.

Quality Requirements for Imperial Medicines

The Medicinal Materials should be superior in quality, impurity-free and authentic. For example, Rhizoma coptidis should be chicken feet-shaped ones from Ya’an, Sichuan Province, which must be superior in quality, bulky and plump with fibrous roots being removed.

2、对制药的请求是“统统炮制、碾筛、成做,不得马虎,以昭稳重”。宝川堂 制药工艺高深,对炮制请求非常严苛且方式怪异,据统计,宝川堂 传统炮制加工方式达50多种,较庞杂的工序达20多道。
The requirements for medicine preparation stated that "all procedures related to processing, grinding, screening of medicines should be rigorous and earnest, as a sign to demonstrate the seriousness of the whole process".

Clarification of the quality-related responsibilities of all parties involved in the delivery of imperial medicines.

一是宝川堂 药商、铺东对供御药的品质担任;
1) The drug dealer and shopkeeper of Tongrentang should be responsible for the quality of imperial medicines;

2) The warehouse supervisor of the Imperial Pharmacy should be in charge of checking and acceptance of the medicines and be responsible for the medicines delivered;

3) The Emperor and the Empress Dowager would count and check the medicines themselves;

4) Acting as a form of responsibility sharing, an “allonge” (similar to management records) should be signed by 17 to 18 officials of the Imperial Pharmacy who engaged in medicine administration and preparation, which followed by the final signature of the Chief Minister of Imperial Household Department;

5) Any errors arising from the delivery of medicines should be dealt with by the Imperial Discipline Department, a division coping with criminal cases under the Imperial Household Department.

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